Peckoltia vittata reaches a maximum total length of 15 cm (5.9 inches). The distinctive striped patterning sported by the species has led to it being referred to as the candy-striped pleco or the tiger pleco in the aquarium trade, although it may also be referred to by its L-number, which is L-015.
Males can be distinguished from females by the presence of small teeth-like projections or odontodes along the back half of their bodies.
Peckoltia vittata is native to South America, where it occurs in the Amazon basin. It can be found in the Amazon River itself, in addition to the Tapajós, the Madeira River, the Xingu River, the Uatumã River, the Trombetas River, the Capim River, and the Maranhão River. The species has also been reported from the Guaviare River of Colombia, although this is an unconfirmed occurrence.
They are popular aquarium fish and require a tropical softwater tank with a temperature of 22 to 26 °C (71.6 to 78.8 °F) and a pH of around 6. It is often confused with the species Panaqolus maccus. Keeping the species in groups of at least 5, in an aquarium of at least 80 cm (31.5 inches) is recommended.